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Frequently Asked Questions(FAQS)
 
 
Mechanism of Action
Allopurinol is an inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase which converts hypoxanthine to xanthine then uric acid. The reduced production of uric acid relieves all symptoms associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase leads to accumulation of its substrates hypoxanthine and xanthine but since their renal clearance is more than 10 times that of uric acid, there is no risk of nephrolithiasis.



Indication & Dosage
 
 
Oral
GOUT
Adult: Initially, 100 mg daily increased according to response until the conc of urate is reduced to ≤6 mg/100 ml. Maintenance: 100-300 mg daily for mild to moderate gout; 600 mg daily for moderately severe tophaceous gout. Max: 900 mg daily.
 
Oral
HYPERURICAEMIA
Adult: Initially, 100 mg daily increased according to response until the conc of urate is reduced to ≤6 mg/100 ml. Maintenance: 100-300 mg daily for mild to moderate gout; 600 mg daily for moderately severe tophaceous gout. Max: 900 mg daily.
 
Oral
HYPERURICAEMIA ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY OR WITH ENZYME DISORDERS
Adult: 600-800 mg/day in 2-3 divided doses for 2-3 days before starting chemotherapy treatment.
 
Oral
HYPERURICAEMIA ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY OR WITH ENZYME DISORDERS
Child: <15 yr: 10-20 mg/kg daily. Max: 400 mg daily.
 
Intravenous
HYPERURICAEMIA
Adult: As sodium: 200-400 mg/m2 daily given as IV infusion in 0.9% Na chloride or 5% glucose. Max: 600 mg daily.
 
Oral
GOUT
Adult: As sodium: 200-400 mg/m2 daily given as IV infusion in 0.9% Na chloride or 5% glucose. Max: 600 mg daily.
  
AdministrationShould be taken with food. (Take immediately after meals.)
  
Precautions2009-02-01Ensure adequate fluid intake. Prophylactically with an anti-inflammatory or colchicine for at least 1 mth. Withdraw immediately when sensitivity (skin rash, etc) appears. Pregnancy, lactation. Hepatic and renal impairment.
  
Potentially Life-threatening 
Adverse Drug Reactions
Rash; alopoecia; GI disorders, taste disturbances, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea; paraesthesia, peripheral neuropathy, vertigo, headache, hepatic necrosis, drowsiness, neuritis, arthralgia; hypertension.
  
Adverse Drug Reactions Stevens-Jonhson and/or Lyell's Syndrome (urticaria, fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia). Occasionally, thrombocytopaenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia.
  
InteractionsIncreased risk of skin rash when used with ampicillin or amoxicillin. May prolong half-life of chlorpropamide and dicumarol. May increase serum levels of ciclosporin. May increase bone marrow depression when used with cyclophosphamide
  
   
 

 

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